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Food Microbiology. Principles Into Practice, 2 Vols.
Food Microbiology. Principles Into Practice, 2 Vols.
Edición/Edição:
Autores: O. Erkmen; T. Bozoglu
Editorial:
ISBN: 9781119237761
Formato: Rústica/Paperback
Nº volumenes: 1 Páginas: 944
Año publicación/Ano de publicação: 2016
Disponibilidad/Disponibilidade: 15 días
Precio/Preço : 264,32 € 251,10 € (261,14€ iva incluído)
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Cómpralos juntos y ahorra
Food Microbiology. Principles Into Practice, 2 Vols. Guía Básica de Bolsillo para el Profesional de la Nutrición Clínica 2ª Ed.
· Food Microbiology. Principles Into Practice, 2 Vols. (O. Erkmen; T. Bozoglu)
· Guía Básica de Bolsillo para el Profesional de la Nutrición Clínica 2ª Ed. (Mary Width | Tonia Reinhard)
299,32 € 284,35 €
Descripción/Descrição
This book covers application of food microbiology principles into food preservation and processing. Main aspects of the food preservation techniques, alternative food preservation techniques, role of microorganisms in food processing and their positive and negative features   are covered. Features subjects on mechanism of antimicrobial action of heat, thermal process, mechanisms for microbial control by low temperature, mechanism of food preservation, control of microorganisms and mycotoxin formation by reducing water activity, food preservation by additives and biocontrol, food preservation by modified atmosphere, alternative food processing techniques, and traditional fermented products processing. The book is designed for students in food engineering, health science, food science, agricultural engineering, food technology, nutrition and dietetic, biological sciences and biotechnology fields. It will also be valuable to researchers, teachers and practising food microbiologists as well as anyone interested in different branches of food.
Contents
About the Authors, xv
Preface, xvii
Section I: Microbiology and Microbial Behavior in Foods, 1
1 History and Development of Food Microbiology, 3
1.1 Introduction, 3
1.2 History of Microorganisms in Foods, 4
1.2.1 Early Development on Foods, 4
1.2.2 Discovery of Microorganisms, 4
1.2.3 Development of Food Microbiology, 5
1.2.4 Modern Microbiology, 6
1.3 Fields of Food Microbiology, 7
1.3.1 Importance of Microorganisms in Foods, 7
1.3.2 Food Microbiology Course, 12
2 Microbial Growth in Foods, 13
2.1 Introduction, 13
2.2 General Principles of Microbial Growth, 13
2.2.1 Importance Being Small Size, 13
2.2.2 Microbial Reproduction, 14
2.2.3 Growth and Death, 16
2.2.4 Predictive Microbiology, 21
2.2.5 Relationships Among Microorganisms in Foods, 31
2.2.6 Type and Number of Microorganisms in Foods, 34
3 Types of Microorganisms in Foods, 35
3.1 Introduction, 35
3.2 Nomenclature of Microorganisms, 35
3.3 Microorganisms in Foods, 36
3.3.1 Bacteria, 36
3.3.2 Fungi, 51
3.3.3 Viruses and Other Agents, 66
3.3.4 Parasites, 67
3.3.5 Algae, 68
3.4 Microbial Genetics, 68
3.4.1 Characteristics of Microbial Genetics, 68
3.4.2 Genetic Recombination, 69
3.4.3 Extrachromosomal Genes, 72
3.4.4 Genetic Mechanism of Drug Resistance, 73
3.5 Significance of Microorganisms in Foods, 74
3.5.1 Cereals, Starches, and Gums, 74
3.5.2 Canned Foods, 75
3.5.3 Eggs, 75
3.5.4 Fish and Shellfish, 76
3.5.5 Mayonnaise and Salad Dressings, 76
3.5.6 Raw and Pasteurized Milk, 76
3.5.7 Raw and Ready-to-Eat Meat Products, 77
3.5.8 Vegetables, Fruits, and Nuts, 78
3.5.9 Soft Drinks, Fruit and Vegetable Drinks, and Bottled Water, 79
3.5.10 Spices, 79
3.5.11 Sugars and Confectionaries, 80
Section II: Microbial Sources and Factors Affecting Microorganisms, 81
4 Presources of Microorganisms in Foods, 83
4.1 Introduction, 83
4.2 Primary Sources of Microorganisms Present in Foods, 83
4.2.1 Water, 84
4.2.2 Plants and Plant Products, 85
4.2.3 Food Equipment and Packaging Material, 85
4.2.4 Intestinal Tract of Man and Animals, 86
4.2.5 Food Handlers, 86
4.2.6 Food Ingredients, 86
4.2.7 Animals, Birds, and Fish, 87
4.2.8 Sewage, 88
4.2.9 Air, Dust, and Soil, 88
4.2.10 Improper Handling Procedures, 89
4.2.11 Miscellaneous Sources, 90
5 Factors Affecting Microbial Growth in Foods, 91
5.1 Introduction, 91
5.2 Intrinsic Factors, 91
5.2.1 pH, 91
5.2.2 Water Activity, 94
5.2.3 Oxidation–Reduction Potential, 97
5.2.4 Nutrient Content, 100
5.2.5 Antimicrobial Content, 101
5.2.6 Biological Protective Structure, 102
5.3 Extrinsic Factors, 102
5.3.1 Temperature, 102
5.3.2 Relative Humidity, 104
5.3.3 Gaseous Atmosphere, 105
5.3.4 Presence of Other Microorganisms, 105
Section III: Foodborne Diseases, 107
6 Important Factors in Foodborne Diseases, 109
6.1 Introduction, 109
6.2 Important Facts in Foodborne Diseases, 110
6.2.1 Side Effects of Foodborne Diseases, 110
6.2.2 Investigation of Foodborne Diseases, 111
6.2.3 Importance of Foodborne Diseases, 112
6.2.4 Susceptibility to Foodborne Diseases, 114
6.2.5 Types of Foodborne Diseases, 114
6.3 Immune Responses, 117
6.3.1 Interactions Between Immune System and Microorganisms, 118
6.3.2 Immune Systems, 119
6.3.3 Types of Immune Systems, 119
7 Bacterial Pathogenicity and Microbial Toxins, 126
7.1 Introduction, 126
7.2 Bacterial Pathogenicity, 127
7.2.1 Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenicity, 127
7.2.2 Virulence Factors, 128
7.3 Bacterial Toxins, 131
7.3.1 Types of Bacterial Toxins, 131
7.3.2 Pathogenicity of Bacterial Structure, 135
7.3.3 Enteric Bacterial Toxins, 136
8 Foodborne Invasive Infections, 138
8.1 Introduction, 138
8.2 Types of Foodborne Invasive Infection, 139
8.2.1 Brucella (Brucellosis), 139
8.2.2 Campylobacter (Campylobacteriosis), 141
8.2.3 Pathogenic Escherichia coli Group, 145
8.2.4 Listeria monocytogenes (Listeriosis), 151
8.2.5 Salmonella (Salmonellosis), 154
8.2.6 Shigella (Shigellosis), 158
8.2.7 Vibrio (Vibriosis), 161
8.2.8 Yersinia enterocolitica (Yersiniosis), 164
8.2.9 Infections with Other Bacteria, 166
9 Foodborne Toxicoinfections, 171
9.1 Introduction, 171
9.2 Types of Foodborne Toxicoinfection, 171
9.2.1 A. hydrophila, 171
9.2.2 B. cereus (Diarrheal Syndrome), 173
9.2.3 C. perfringens, 176
9.2.4 P. shigelloides, 180
9.2.5 V. cholerae, 181
9.2.6 Enterotoxigenic and Enteropathogenic E. coli, 184
10 Foodborne Intoxications, 186
10.1 Introduction, 186
10.2 Bacterial Foodborne Intoxication, 186
10.2.1 B. cereus (Emetic Poisoning), 186
10.2.2 Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcal Poisoning), 187
10.2.3 Clostridium botulinum (Botulism), 190
10.3 Mycotoxins, 193
10.3.1 Characteristics of Mycotoxin-Producing Molds, 193
10.3.2 Contamination of Foods by Mycotoxins, 194
10.3.3 Major Types of Mycotoxins, 195
10.3.4 Stability of Mycotoxins in Foods, 201
10.4 Mushroom Toxins, 202
10.4.1 Protoplasmic Toxins, 203
10.4.2 Neurotoxins, 204
10.4.3 Gastrointestinal Irritants, 205
10.4.4 Disulfiram-Like Poisoning, 205
10.4.5 Other Mushroom Poisonings, 205
10.5 Biogenic Amines, 205
10.5.1 Occurrence of Biogenic Amines in Foods, 206
10.5.2 Biogenic Amine Poisoning, 206
10.5.3 Prevention and Control, 207
11 Parasites, Marine Toxins, and Virus Food Poisonings, 208
11.1 Introduction, 208
11.2 Parasites, 208
11.2.1 Helminths, 209
11.2.2 Protozoa, 212
11.2.3 Occurrence of Parasites in Foods and Water, 214
11.3 Marine Toxins, 215
11.3.1 Types of Marine Poisonings, 215
11.3.2 Prevention of Marine Poisonings, 217
11.4 Chemical Poisoning, 217
11.5 Foodborne Viruses and Prion, 218
11.5.1 Characteristics of Viruses, 218
11.5.2 Important Viruses, 218
11.5.3 Spongiform Encephalopathies, 220
11.6 Food Allergy, 221
12 Indicators of Foodborne Pathogens, 223
12.1 Introduction, 223
12.2 Establishment of Microbiological Criteria, 223
12.3 Indicators of Pathogens in Foods, 225
12.3.1 Coliforms, 226
12.3.2 Fecal Coliforms, 227
12.3.3 E. coli, 228
12.3.4 Enterobacteriaceae, 228
12.3.5 Enterococcus, 229
12.3.6 Total Viable Count, 229
12.3.7 Other Microbial Indicators, 230
Section IV: Detection of Microorganisms, 231
13 Conventional Techniques in Food Microbiology, 233
13.1 Introduction, 233
13.2 Sampling Plan and Sample Preparation, 233
13.2.1 Sampling Plan, 233
13.2.2 Sample Preparation, 235
13.3 Conventional Microbial Counting Methods, 237
13.3.1 Quantitative Methods, 237
13.3.2 Qualitative Methods, 243
14 Advanced Techniques in Food Microbiology, 245
14.1 Introduction, 245
14.2 Developing Rapid Methods, 246
14.2.1 Microbiological Testing of Foods, 246
14.2.2 Problems in Food Analysis, 246
14.2.3 Development and Origin of Rapid Methods, 247
14.3 Physical Methods, 248
14.3.1 Impedance Method, 248
14.3.2 Microcalorimetry, 250
14.3.3 Particle Counting, 250
14.3.4 Bacteriophage, 251
14.3.5 Image Analysis Systems, 251
14.3.6 Chromatographic Method, 251
14.3.7 Electrophoresis, 251
14.3.8 Detection of Microorganisms by Infrared Detectors, 252
14.4 Chemical Methods, 253
14.4.1 Radiometry (Isotopic Method), 253
14.4.2 Bioluminescence, 254
14.4.3 Thermostable Nuclease, 255
14.4.4 Nucleic Acid Probes and PCR Methods, 255
14.4.5 Glucuronidase Assay for E. coli, 257
14.4.6 Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Test, 258
14.5 Immunoassay Methods, 258
14.5.1 Radioimmunoassay, 258
14.5.2 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, 259
14.5.3 Immunofluorescence Antibody, 259
14.5.4 Immunomagnetic Separation, 260
14.5.5 Latex Agglutination, 260
14.5.6 Enrichment Serology, 261
14.5.7 Immunoelectron Microscopy, 261
14.5.8 Precipitin Reaction, 261
14.5.9 Agglutination Tests, 262
14.5.10 Immunoelectrophoresis, 262
14.6 Other Methods, 263
14.7 Limitation of Rapid Methods, 263
14.8 Future Developments in Rapid Methods, 264
14.8.1 Immunosensors or Biosensors, 264
14.8.2 DNA Microarrays (Chips), 265
Section V: Microbial Food Spoilage, 267
15 Principles of Food Spoilage, 269
15.1 Introduction, 269
15.2 Food Spoilage, 269
15.2.1 Acceptable Foods, 269
15.2.2 Classification of Foods Depending on Stability, 270
15.2.3 Types of Agents Causing Food Spoilage, 271
15.2.4 Types of Food Spoilage, 271
15.2.5 Factors Affecting Food Spoilage, 275
16 Spoilage of Meat and Meat Products, 279
16.1 Introduction, 279
16.2 Meat and Meat Products, 279
16.2.1 Bacterial Attachment with Meat, 279
16.2.2 Contamination, 280
16.2.3 Meat Spoilage, 282
16.2.4 Meat Products, 287
16.2.5 Preservation of Meat and Meat Products, 291
16.3 Poultry, 293
16.3.1 Contamination, 293
16.3.2 Spoilage, 294
16.3.3 Preservation of Poultry, 294
17 Spoilage of Eggs and Egg Products, 296
17.1 Introduction, 296
17.2 Microbial Contamination, 296
17.3 Spoilage, 297
17.3.1 Nonmicrobial Spoilage, 297
17.3.2 Microbial Spoilage, 297
17.4 Preservation of Eggs and Egg Products, 298
17.4.1 Asepsis, 298
17.4.2 Removal of Microorganisms, 299
17.4.3 Use of Heat Treatment, 299
17.4.4 Use of Low Temperatures, 299
17.4.5 Use of Preservatives, 300
18 Spoilage of Fish and Other Seafoods, 301
18.1 Introduction, 301
18.2 Microbial Contamination, 301
18.3 Spoilage, 302
18.3.1 Fish, 302
18.3.2 Shellfish, 304
18.4 Preservation of Fish and Other Seafoods, 304
19 Spoilage of Milk and Milk Products, 307
19.1 Introduction, 307
19.2 Milk Composition and Microbial Contamination, 307
19.3 Spoilage, 309
19.3.1 Raw Milk Spoilage, 309
19.3.2 Fluid Milk Products Spoilage, 315
19.3.3 Fermented Milk Products Spoilage, 322
19.4 Preservation of Milk and Milk Products, 332
19.4.1 Asepsis, 332
19.4.2 Removal of Microorganisms, 333
19.4.3 Use of Heat, 333
19.4.4 Low Temperature, 334
19.4.5 Drying, 334
19.4.6 Use of Preservatives, 335
19.4.7 Mechanical Reduction of Microorganisms, 336
20 Spoilage of Vegetables and Fruits, 337
20.1 Introduction, 337
20.2 Vegetables and Fruits Spoilage, 338
20.2.1 Natural Microflora, 338
20.2.2 Mechanisms of Microbial Spoilage, 338
20.2.3 Vegetables Spoilage, 340
20.2.4 Fruits Spoilage, 343
20.2.5 Preservation of Vegetables and Fruits, 347
20.3 Fruit Juice and Beverage Spoilage, 349
20.3.1 Spoilage, 349
20.3.2 Pathogens, 353
20.4 Fermented Vegetables and Fruits Spoilage, 354
20.4.1 Sauerkraut Spoilage, 355
20.4.2 Pickle Spoilage, 356
20.4.3 Table Olive Spoilage, 358
20.4.4 Alcoholic Beverage Spoilage, 361
21 Spoilage of Cereals and Cereal Products, 364
21.1 Introduction, 364
21.2 Contamination, 364
21.3 Spoilage, 365
21.3.1 Cereal Grains Spoilage, 365
21.3.2 Flour Spoilage, 368
21.3.3 Bread Spoilage, 368
21.3.4 Pastas Spoilage, 371
21.3.5 Pastries Spoilage, 371
21.4 Control of Mold and Mycotoxin Contamination, 371
21.4.1 Control of Mold Growth, 372
21.4.2 Prevention of Mold and Mycotoxin Contamination, 373
21.4.3 Decontamination of Mycotoxins, 374
22 Spoilage of Canned Foods, 376
22.1 Introduction, 376
22.2 Canned Foods, 376
22.2.1 Classification of Canned Foods Based on Acidity, 376
22.2.2 Commercial Sterility of Canned Foods, 377
22.3 Canned Food Spoilage, 377
22.3.1 Microbial Spoilage, 378
22.3.2 Chemical Spoilage, 383
22.3.3 Appearance of Unopened Cans, 383
23 Spoilage of Miscellaneous Foods, 385
23.1 Introduction, 385
23.2 Spoilage, 385
23.2.1 Spoilage of Sugar and Honey, 385
23.2.2 Spoilage of Spices, Seasonings, and Dry Soups, 390
23.2.3 Spoilage of Cocoa, Chocolate, and Confectionery, 391
23.2.4 Spoilage of Oil- and Fat-Based Products, 393
23.2.5 Drinking Water, 399
24 Enzymatic and Nonenzymatic Food Spoilage, 401
24.1 Introduction, 401
24.2 Spoilage, 401
24.2.1 Nonenzymatic Spoilage, 401
24.2.2 Enzymatic Spoilage, 402
24.2.3 Characteristics of Heat-Stable Enzymes of Psychrotrophs, 404
24.2.4 Spoilage of Foods by Heat-Stable Microbial Enzymes, 404
24.2.5 Inhibition of Enzymes, 406
25 Indicators of Food Spoilage, 407
25.1 Introduction, 407
25.2 Indicators of Food Spoilage, 407
25.2.1 Food Spoilage Criteria, 407
25.2.2 Indicators of Microbial Spoilage Criteria, 408
25.2.3 Heat-Stable Enzymes as Spoilage Criteria, 412
26 Psychrotrophs, Thermophiles, and Radiation-Resistant Microorganisms, 413
26.1 Introduction, 413
26.2 Psychrotrophic Microorganisms, 413
26.2.1 Temperature-Induced Changes, 414
26.2.2 Effect of Low Temperatures on Microbial Physiology, 414
26.2.3 Nature of Low Heat Resistance of Psychrotrophs, 415
26.3 Thermophilic Microorganisms, 416
26.3.1 Thermostability, 416
26.3.2 Factors Affecting Thermophilic Microorganisms, 416
26.4 Radiation-Resistant Microorganisms, 417
26.4.1 Characteristics of Radiation-Resistant Micrococcus, 417
26.4.2 Mechanism of Microbial Radiation Resistance, 418
26.4.3 Factors Affecting Radiation Resistance, 418
Bibliography, 419
Index, 431
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