1 Mechanics of the Cardiovascular System (B. Greaney & A.M. Kucia) Overview.
Basic heart anatomy.
The cardiac cycle.
2 Regulation of Cardiac and Vascular Function (B. Greaney & A.M. Kucia). Overview.
Central nervous system regulation of the cardiovascular system.
3 Cardiac Electrophysiology (B. Greaney & A.M. Kucia).
The action potential.
The action potential in non-pacemaker cells.
The cardiac conduction system.
4 The Coronary Circulation (B. Greaney & A.M. Kucia).
The coronary circulation.
The left main coronary artery.
The LAD artery.
The LCX or CX artery.
The right coronary artery.
Coronary venous circulation.
5 Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease (A.M. Kucia & E. Birchmore).
Classification of risk factors for CVD.
Biomedical risk factors.
Behavioural risk factors.
Psychosocial risk factors.
6 Populations at Risk (T. Wachtel, R. Webster & J. Smith).
Risk factors for CVD.
Risk assessment tools.
Populations at increased risk.
Using what we know.
7 Evidence-Based Practice (D. Evans & T. Quinn).
The need for change.
Barriers to the evidence.
8 Ethics of Research in Acute Cardiac Care (B.F. Williams & A.M. Kucia).
Evidence-based medicine and clinical trials.
Informed consent for trial participation.
What is an ethical dilemma?
Considering an offer for the unit to participate in a clinical trial.
Ethical issues in marketing and pricing of new pharmaceutical agents.
9 Cardiovascular Assessment (A.M. Kucia & S.A. Unger).
10 Electrocardiogram Interpretation (A.M. Kucia & C. Oldroyd).
Normal sequence of depolarisation and repolarisation.
Theoretical basis of electrocardiography.
Determining the cardiac axis.
Determination of heart rate and electrocardiographic intervals.
Bundle branch block.
ECG changes related to myocardial ischaemia and infarction.
Obtaining a 12-lead ECG.
11 Cardiac Monitoring (A.M. Kucia & C. Oldroyd).
ECG monitoring systems and lead formats.
Indications for arrhythmia monitoring.
Nursing considerations in the care of the patient with ECG monitoring.
12 Laboratory Tests (D. Barrett, L. Jesuthasan & A.M. Kucia).
Generic laboratory tests.
Complete blood examination.
Markers of myocardial necrosis.
Cardiac natriuretic peptides.
13 Diagnostic Procedures (L. Belz, K. Mishra, S.A. Unger & A.M. Kucia).
Cardiac catheterisation (angiogram).
Magnetic resonance imaging.
14 Sudden Cardiac Death (T. Quinn & P. Gregory).
Burden of disease and risk factors for SCD.
Sudden death in the young (including athletes).
Cardiomyopathies and SCD.
Genetic syndromes and SCD.
15 Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Automated External Defibrillation (P. Gregory & T. Quinn).
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest,
Hazards to the victim and rescuer,
Recognition of cardiac arrest and BLS,
Automated external defibrillation,
16 Ethical Issues in Resuscitation (A.M. Kucia & B.F. Williams).
Guiding ethical principles in resuscitation.
Rights of the individual versus the needs of society.
Patient perceptions of resuscitation.
Introducing the DNR conversation.
Withdrawal of treatment.
Training and research with the newly dead.
17 Pathogenesis of Acute Coronary Syndromes (A.M. Kucia & J.D. Horowitz).
Acute coronary syndrome.
18 Presentations of Acute Coronary Syndromes (A.M. Kucia & J.F. Beltrame).
The acute coronary syndromes.
Global trends in ACS presentations.
Clinical history in ACS.
Physical examination in ACS patients.
The 12-lead electrocardiogram in ACS.
Cardiac markers in ACS.
Clinical assessment and risk stratification in ACS.
19 Risk Stratification in Acute Coronary Syndromes (A. Day, C. Ryan & T. Quinn).
Risk stratification guidelines.
Chest pain units.
20 Reducing Time to Treatment (T. Quinn & A. Day).
Benefits of early reperfusion.
Identifying and addressing delays.
21 Reperfusion Strategies (C.J. Zeitz & T. Quinn).
Pathogenesis of STEMI.
Principles of reperfusion strategies.
Options for reperfusion.
Strategies for reducing treatment time delays.
Detecting and managing failed reperfusion.
Preventing and detecting re-occlusion.
22 Adjunct Pharmacological Agents in Acute Coronary Syndromes (A.M. Kucia & J.D. Horowitz).
Antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy.
Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone system.
23 Arrhythmias (C. Oldroyd & A.M. Kucia).
Mechanisms of arrhythmia generations.
Determining the rhythm.
Treatment of arrhythmias.
24 In-Hospital Resuscitation (C. Oldroyd, K. Lewis & P. Whiston).
Prevention: systems for identifying patients at risk of cardiac arrest.
Early recognition and management of critically ill patients.
Working within your scope of practice.
Audit and data collection.
25 Acute Heart Failure (T. Quinn).
Establishing the diagnosis.
Dignity, communication and preventing complications: ‘back to basics’.
Managing chronic heart failure better to reduce the need for re-hospitalisation.
26 Convalescence (P. Davidson & R. Webster).
Assessment and identification of patient needs.
High risk groups.
Promoting self-management in the convalescent phase.
Particular concerns of spouses and family members.
Accommodating convalescence and discharge planning following an acute cardiac event.
Models of intervention to facilitate convalescence and secondary prevention.
Nursing strategies to promote convalescence.
27 Discharge Planning and Secondary Prevention (R. Webster & P. Davidson).
Provision of secondary prevention.
Components of secondary prevention.
Cardio-protective drug therapy.
Challenges in secondary prevention.
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