Eating Disorders and the Brain

78,75 €
Disponible
ISBN
9780470670033
Edición
1st
Autores
Bryan Lask
Editorial
Wiley
Fecha Publicacion
1 ago. 2011
Características
N/D
Why is the brain important in eating disorders? This ground-breaking new book describes how increasingly sophisticated neuroscientific approaches are revealing much about the role of the brain in eating disorders. Even more importantly, it discusses how underlying brain abnormalities and dysfunction may contribute to the development and help in the treatment of these serious disorders. Neuropsychological studies show impairments in specific cognitive functions, especially executive and visuo-spatial skills. Neuroimaging studies show structural and functional abnormalities, including cortical atrophy and neural circuit abnormalities, the latter appearing to be playing a major part in the development of anorexia nervosa. Neurochemistry studies show dysregulation within neurotransmitter systems, with effects upon the modulation of feeding, mood, anxiety, neuroendocrine control, metabolic rate, sympathetic tone and temperature. The first chapter, by an eating disorders clinician, explains the importance of a neuroscience perspective for clinicians. This is followed by an overview of the common eating disorders, then chapters on what we know of them from studies of neuroimaging, neuropsychology and neurochemistry. The mysterious phenomenon of body image disturbance is then described and explained from a neuroscience perspective. The next two chapters focus on neuroscience models of eating disorders, the first offering an overview and the second a new and comprehensive explanatory model of anorexia nervosa. The following two chapters offer a clinical perspective, with attention on the implications of a neuroscience perspective for patients and their families, the second providing details of clinical applications of neuroscience understanding. The final chapter looks to the future. This book succinctly reviews current knowledge about all these aspects of eating disorder neuroscience and explores the implications for treatment. It will be of great interest to all clinicians (psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, dieticians, paediatricians, physicians, physiotherapists) working in eating disorders, as well as to neuroscience researchers. TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface xi List of contributors xiii Acknowledgements xv 1 Why clinicians should love neuroscience: the clinical relevance of contemporary knowledge 1 David Wood 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 The legacy of mind–body dualism 2 1.3 Free will and determinism 3 1.4 Clinical implications 3 1.5 Restriction of energy intake and increase in energy output 4 1.6 Non-eating-related concerns 5 1.7 In-the-beginning questions: the problem of aetiology in eating disorders 6 1.8 The temporal, ‘vertical’ aetiological dimension 7 1.9 The spatial, ‘horizontal’ aetiological dimension 11 1.10 The importance of a neuroscientific aetiological framework 13 1.11 Conclusion 15 References 16 2 Eating disorders: an overview 19 Beth Watkins 2.1 Introduction 19 2.2 Clinical descriptions 20 2.3 Comorbidity 24 2.4 Epidemiology 25 2.5 Aetiology and risk factors 27 2.6 Treatment 35 2.7 Course and outcome 40 2.8 Conclusion 41 References 41 3 Neuroimaging 56 Tone Seim Fuglset and Ian Frampton 3.1 Introduction 56 3.2 Structural imaging 56 3.3 Functional imaging 90 3.4 Conclusion 101 References 101 4 Neuropsychology 106 Joanna E. Steinglass and Deborah R. Glasofer 4.1 Introduction 106 4.2 Intellectual functioning 107 4.3 Attention 108 4.4 Memory 110 4.5 Visuospatial processing 111 4.6 Executive functioning 113 4.7 Conclusion 116 References 117 5 Neurochemistry: the fabric of life and the fabric of eating disorders 122 Kenneth Nunn 5.1 Introduction 122 5.2 Five aims 122 5.3 Five propositions relating neurochemistry to the field of eating disorders 123 5.4 Five implications of these propositions 127 5.5 Five directions for future research 127 5.6 Conclusion 127 Acknowledgement 128 References 128 6 Body-image disturbance 129 Maria Øver°as 6.1 Introduction 129 6.2 What is body image? 130 6.3 How is body image constructed in the brain? 130 6.4 Body-image disturbance in eating disorders 133 6.5 The neuroscience of body-image distortion in anorexia nervosa 134 6.6 Conclusion 138 References 139 7 Conceptual models 142 Mark Rose and Ian Frampton 7.1 Introduction 142 7.2 Conceptual models in anorexia nervosa 143 7.3 Conclusion 161 References 163 8 Towards a comprehensive, causal and explanatory neuroscience model of anorexia nervosa 164 Kenneth Nunn, Bryan Lask and Ian Frampton 8.1 Introduction 164 8.2 The model 164 8.3 Critical appraisal 173 8.4 Clinical implications 175 8.5 Conclusion 177 Acknowledgements 177 References 177 9 Neurobiological models: implications for patients and families 180 Ilina Singh and Alina Wengaard 9.1 Introduction 180 9.2 The emergence of neurobiological models 180 9.3 Anorexia nervosa and illness representations 181 9.4 Impact of a neurobiological model on families’ understandings of anorexia nervosa 183 9.5 Conclusion 188 References 189 10 Implications for treatment 191 Camilla Lindvall and Bryan Lask 10.1 Introduction 191 10.2 Psychopharmacology 192 10.3 The educational context 193 10.4 Psychological treatment 194 10.5 Conclusion 205 References 205 11 Future directions 207 Ian Frampton and Bryan Lask 11.1 Introduction 207 11.2 Cause 207 11.3 Assessment and diagnosis 208 11.4 Treatment 210 11.5 Prevention 211 11.6 Future directions 212 11.7 Conclusion 215 References 216 Index 219
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