Neurostereology: Unbiased Stereology of Neural Systems

109,62 €
R.R Mouton
Fecha Publicacion
1 ene. 2014
Stereological methods provide researchers with unparalleled quantitative data from tissue samples and allow for well-evidenced research advances in a broad range of scientific fields. Presenting a concise introduction to the methodology and application of stereological research in neuroscience, Neurostereology provides a fuller understanding of the use of these methods in research and a means for replicating successful scientific approaches. Providing sound footing for future research, Neurostereology is a useful tool for basic and clinical researchers and advanced students looking to integrate these methods into their research. Table of Contents Contributors ix Preface xiii 1 Stereological Estimation of Brain Volume and Surface Area from MR Images 3 Niyazi Acer and Mehmet Turgut Background 3 The Cavalieri Principle 3 Volume Estimation Using Spatial Grid of Points 7 Surface Area Estimation 8 Isotropic Cavalieri Design 14 Sections Analyzed with Independent Grid Design 14 Surface Area Using the Invariator 16 Volume and Surface Area Estimation Using Segmentation Method 17 Discussion 18 References 19 Webliography 21 Appendix A: R Commands for Point Counting Method 21 Appendix B: R Commands for Vertical Section to Estimate Surface Area 23 2 Cell Proliferation in the Brains of Adult Rats Exposed to Traumatic Brain Injury 27 Sandra A. Acosta, Naoki Tajiri, Paula C. Bickford, and Cesar V. Borlongan Background 27 Materials and Methods 28 Results 29 Discussion 33 Acknowledgments 37 References 37 3 Age Effects in Substantia Nigra of Asian Indians 39 Phalguni Anand Alladi Background 39 Materials and Methods 40 Discussion 43 Acknowledgments 48 References 49 4 Design-Based Stereology in the Brain Bank Setting 53 Mark W. Burke Background 53 Specimen Preparation 53 A Practical Application of Design-Based Stereology 57 Results 59 Conclusion 60 References 61 5 Practical Stereology for Preclinical Neurotoxicology 63 Mark T. Butt Background 63 Specimen Quality 64 Practical Stereology 70 Software Validation/Verifi cation 70 References 72 6 An Overabundance of Prefrontal Cortex Neurons Underlies Early Brain Overgrowth in Autism 73 Eric Courchesne, Peter R. Mouton, Michael E. Calhoun, Clelia Ahrens-Barbeau, Melodie J. Hallet, Cynthia Carter Barnes, Karen Pierce, and Katarina Semendeferi Background 73 Methods 74 Results 78 Discussion 80 Acknowledgments 81 References 82 7 Order in Chaos: Stereological Studies of Nervous Tissue 85 Peter Dockery Background 85 The Stereological Approach 85 Axonal Number and Composition in the Murine Optic Nerve 91 Axonal and Fiber Size Distributions 92 The Myelin Sheath 93 Conclusion 94 References 95 8 Comparative Stereology Studies of Brains from Marine Mammals 99 Nina Eriksen and Bente Pakkenberg Background 99 Description of Different Marine Mammalian Brains 99 Parts of the Brain 102 References 109 Appendix: Cited Stereological Approaches 110 9 Quantitative Assessment of Hippocampus Architecture Using the Optical Disector 113 Shozo Jinno Background 113 The Hippocampus 114 Conclusion 123 References 123 10 The Possible Applications (and Pitfalls!) of Stereological Analysis in Postmortem Brain Research 129 Ahmad A. Khundakar and Alan J. Thomas Background 129 The Legacy of Two-Dimensional (2D) Analysis 129 Density: A Necessary Evil 130 “Come on, Feel the Noise”: Recognizing Confounding Factors 130 “I Am Not a Number”: The Importance of Sound Patient Clinical History 131 Lessons Learned from Stereology: Toward a More Unifi ed Approach to Brain Banking and Postmortem Tissue Research (and Beyond!) 132 Obtain the Full Reference Volume or “Make Do and Mend” 133 Turn Down the “Noise” 134 “Check the Information, Expand the Knowledge” 135 Show Your Work! 135 Conclusion 136 Acknowledgments 136 References 136 11 Visualization of Blood Vessels in Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Environments for Vascular Stereology in the Brain 139 Zerina Lokmic Background 139 Vascular Stereology of Tissue Sections 139 Visualization of Brain Blood Vessels 142 Conclusion 149 Acknowledgment 149 References 149 12 Blood Flow Analysis in Epilepsy Using a Novel Stereological Approach 153 Rocio Leal-Campanario, Luis Alarcon-Martinez, Susana Martinez-Conde, Michael Calhoun, and Stephen Macknik Background 153 Materials and Methods 155 Results 166 Discussion 172 References 173 13 AD-Type Neuron Loss in Transgenic Mouse Models 177 Kebreten F. Manaye and Peter R. Mouton Background 177 Materials and Methods 179 Results 182 Discussion 185 Acknowledgments 187 References 188 14 Quantification in Populations of Nonuniformly Distributed Cells in the Human Cerebral Cortex 191 William L. Maxwell Background 191 Materials and Methods 191 Results 196 Discussion 205 References 208 15 The Effects of High-Fat Diet on the Mouse Hypothalamus: A Stereological Study 211 Mohammad Reza Namavar, Samira Raminfard, Zahra Vojdani Jahromi, and Hassan Azari Background 211 Materials and Methods 212 Results 213 Discussion 215 Acknowledgments 217 References 218 16 2D and 3D Morphometric Analyses Comparing Three Rodent Models 221 JiHyuk Park and S. Omar Ahmad Background 221 Materials and Methods 221 Results 226 Discussion 230 References 235 17 A Stereologic Perspective on Autism Neuropathology 237 Neha Uppal and Patrick R. Hof Background 237 Cortical Areas 237 Hippocampus 248 Noncortical Areas 249 Conclusions 253 References 254 Index 257
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