Food Microbiology. Principles Into Practice, 2 Vols.

251,10 €
Disponible
ISBN
9781119237761
Edición
Autores
O. Erkmen, T. Bozoglu
Editorial
Wiley
Fecha Publicacion
15 jun. 2016
Características
N/D
This book covers application of food microbiology principles into food preservation and processing. Main aspects of the food preservation techniques, alternative food preservation techniques, role of microorganisms in food processing and their positive and negative features   are covered. Features subjects on mechanism of antimicrobial action of heat, thermal process, mechanisms for microbial control by low temperature, mechanism of food preservation, control of microorganisms and mycotoxin formation by reducing water activity, food preservation by additives and biocontrol, food preservation by modified atmosphere, alternative food processing techniques, and traditional fermented products processing. The book is designed for students in food engineering, health science, food science, agricultural engineering, food technology, nutrition and dietetic, biological sciences and biotechnology fields. It will also be valuable to researchers, teachers and practising food microbiologists as well as anyone interested in different branches of food. Contents About the Authors, xv Preface, xvii Section I: Microbiology and Microbial Behavior in Foods, 1 1 History and Development of Food Microbiology, 3 1.1 Introduction, 3 1.2 History of Microorganisms in Foods, 4 1.2.1 Early Development on Foods, 4 1.2.2 Discovery of Microorganisms, 4 1.2.3 Development of Food Microbiology, 5 1.2.4 Modern Microbiology, 6 1.3 Fields of Food Microbiology, 7 1.3.1 Importance of Microorganisms in Foods, 7 1.3.2 Food Microbiology Course, 12 2 Microbial Growth in Foods, 13 2.1 Introduction, 13 2.2 General Principles of Microbial Growth, 13 2.2.1 Importance Being Small Size, 13 2.2.2 Microbial Reproduction, 14 2.2.3 Growth and Death, 16 2.2.4 Predictive Microbiology, 21 2.2.5 Relationships Among Microorganisms in Foods, 31 2.2.6 Type and Number of Microorganisms in Foods, 34 3 Types of Microorganisms in Foods, 35 3.1 Introduction, 35 3.2 Nomenclature of Microorganisms, 35 3.3 Microorganisms in Foods, 36 3.3.1 Bacteria, 36 3.3.2 Fungi, 51 3.3.3 Viruses and Other Agents, 66 3.3.4 Parasites, 67 3.3.5 Algae, 68 3.4 Microbial Genetics, 68 3.4.1 Characteristics of Microbial Genetics, 68 3.4.2 Genetic Recombination, 69 3.4.3 Extrachromosomal Genes, 72 3.4.4 Genetic Mechanism of Drug Resistance, 73 3.5 Significance of Microorganisms in Foods, 74 3.5.1 Cereals, Starches, and Gums, 74 3.5.2 Canned Foods, 75 3.5.3 Eggs, 75 3.5.4 Fish and Shellfish, 76 3.5.5 Mayonnaise and Salad Dressings, 76 3.5.6 Raw and Pasteurized Milk, 76 3.5.7 Raw and Ready-to-Eat Meat Products, 77 3.5.8 Vegetables, Fruits, and Nuts, 78 3.5.9 Soft Drinks, Fruit and Vegetable Drinks, and Bottled Water, 79 3.5.10 Spices, 79 3.5.11 Sugars and Confectionaries, 80 Section II: Microbial Sources and Factors Affecting Microorganisms, 81 4 Presources of Microorganisms in Foods, 83 4.1 Introduction, 83 4.2 Primary Sources of Microorganisms Present in Foods, 83 4.2.1 Water, 84 4.2.2 Plants and Plant Products, 85 4.2.3 Food Equipment and Packaging Material, 85 4.2.4 Intestinal Tract of Man and Animals, 86 4.2.5 Food Handlers, 86 4.2.6 Food Ingredients, 86 4.2.7 Animals, Birds, and Fish, 87 4.2.8 Sewage, 88 4.2.9 Air, Dust, and Soil, 88 4.2.10 Improper Handling Procedures, 89 4.2.11 Miscellaneous Sources, 90 5 Factors Affecting Microbial Growth in Foods, 91 5.1 Introduction, 91 5.2 Intrinsic Factors, 91 5.2.1 pH, 91 5.2.2 Water Activity, 94 5.2.3 Oxidation–Reduction Potential, 97 5.2.4 Nutrient Content, 100 5.2.5 Antimicrobial Content, 101 5.2.6 Biological Protective Structure, 102 5.3 Extrinsic Factors, 102 5.3.1 Temperature, 102 5.3.2 Relative Humidity, 104 5.3.3 Gaseous Atmosphere, 105 5.3.4 Presence of Other Microorganisms, 105 Section III: Foodborne Diseases, 107 6 Important Factors in Foodborne Diseases, 109 6.1 Introduction, 109 6.2 Important Facts in Foodborne Diseases, 110 6.2.1 Side Effects of Foodborne Diseases, 110 6.2.2 Investigation of Foodborne Diseases, 111 6.2.3 Importance of Foodborne Diseases, 112 6.2.4 Susceptibility to Foodborne Diseases, 114 6.2.5 Types of Foodborne Diseases, 114 6.3 Immune Responses, 117 6.3.1 Interactions Between Immune System and Microorganisms, 118 6.3.2 Immune Systems, 119 6.3.3 Types of Immune Systems, 119 7 Bacterial Pathogenicity and Microbial Toxins, 126 7.1 Introduction, 126 7.2 Bacterial Pathogenicity, 127 7.2.1 Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenicity, 127 7.2.2 Virulence Factors, 128 7.3 Bacterial Toxins, 131 7.3.1 Types of Bacterial Toxins, 131 7.3.2 Pathogenicity of Bacterial Structure, 135 7.3.3 Enteric Bacterial Toxins, 136 8 Foodborne Invasive Infections, 138 8.1 Introduction, 138 8.2 Types of Foodborne Invasive Infection, 139 8.2.1 Brucella (Brucellosis), 139 8.2.2 Campylobacter (Campylobacteriosis), 141 8.2.3 Pathogenic Escherichia coli Group, 145 8.2.4 Listeria monocytogenes (Listeriosis), 151 8.2.5 Salmonella (Salmonellosis), 154 8.2.6 Shigella (Shigellosis), 158 8.2.7 Vibrio (Vibriosis), 161 8.2.8 Yersinia enterocolitica (Yersiniosis), 164 8.2.9 Infections with Other Bacteria, 166 9 Foodborne Toxicoinfections, 171 9.1 Introduction, 171 9.2 Types of Foodborne Toxicoinfection, 171 9.2.1 A. hydrophila, 171 9.2.2 B. cereus (Diarrheal Syndrome), 173 9.2.3 C. perfringens, 176 9.2.4 P. shigelloides, 180 9.2.5 V. cholerae, 181 9.2.6 Enterotoxigenic and Enteropathogenic E. coli, 184 10 Foodborne Intoxications, 186 10.1 Introduction, 186 10.2 Bacterial Foodborne Intoxication, 186 10.2.1 B. cereus (Emetic Poisoning), 186 10.2.2 Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcal Poisoning), 187 10.2.3 Clostridium botulinum (Botulism), 190 10.3 Mycotoxins, 193 10.3.1 Characteristics of Mycotoxin-Producing Molds, 193 10.3.2 Contamination of Foods by Mycotoxins, 194 10.3.3 Major Types of Mycotoxins, 195 10.3.4 Stability of Mycotoxins in Foods, 201 10.4 Mushroom Toxins, 202 10.4.1 Protoplasmic Toxins, 203 10.4.2 Neurotoxins, 204 10.4.3 Gastrointestinal Irritants, 205 10.4.4 Disulfiram-Like Poisoning, 205 10.4.5 Other Mushroom Poisonings, 205 10.5 Biogenic Amines, 205 10.5.1 Occurrence of Biogenic Amines in Foods, 206 10.5.2 Biogenic Amine Poisoning, 206 10.5.3 Prevention and Control, 207 11 Parasites, Marine Toxins, and Virus Food Poisonings, 208 11.1 Introduction, 208 11.2 Parasites, 208 11.2.1 Helminths, 209 11.2.2 Protozoa, 212 11.2.3 Occurrence of Parasites in Foods and Water, 214 11.3 Marine Toxins, 215 11.3.1 Types of Marine Poisonings, 215 11.3.2 Prevention of Marine Poisonings, 217 11.4 Chemical Poisoning, 217 11.5 Foodborne Viruses and Prion, 218 11.5.1 Characteristics of Viruses, 218 11.5.2 Important Viruses, 218 11.5.3 Spongiform Encephalopathies, 220 11.6 Food Allergy, 221 12 Indicators of Foodborne Pathogens, 223 12.1 Introduction, 223 12.2 Establishment of Microbiological Criteria, 223 12.3 Indicators of Pathogens in Foods, 225 12.3.1 Coliforms, 226 12.3.2 Fecal Coliforms, 227 12.3.3 E. coli, 228 12.3.4 Enterobacteriaceae, 228 12.3.5 Enterococcus, 229 12.3.6 Total Viable Count, 229 12.3.7 Other Microbial Indicators, 230 Section IV: Detection of Microorganisms, 231 13 Conventional Techniques in Food Microbiology, 233 13.1 Introduction, 233 13.2 Sampling Plan and Sample Preparation, 233 13.2.1 Sampling Plan, 233 13.2.2 Sample Preparation, 235 13.3 Conventional Microbial Counting Methods, 237 13.3.1 Quantitative Methods, 237 13.3.2 Qualitative Methods, 243 14 Advanced Techniques in Food Microbiology, 245 14.1 Introduction, 245 14.2 Developing Rapid Methods, 246 14.2.1 Microbiological Testing of Foods, 246 14.2.2 Problems in Food Analysis, 246 14.2.3 Development and Origin of Rapid Methods, 247 14.3 Physical Methods, 248 14.3.1 Impedance Method, 248 14.3.2 Microcalorimetry, 250 14.3.3 Particle Counting, 250 14.3.4 Bacteriophage, 251 14.3.5 Image Analysis Systems, 251 14.3.6 Chromatographic Method, 251 14.3.7 Electrophoresis, 251 14.3.8 Detection of Microorganisms by Infrared Detectors, 252 14.4 Chemical Methods, 253 14.4.1 Radiometry (Isotopic Method), 253 14.4.2 Bioluminescence, 254 14.4.3 Thermostable Nuclease, 255 14.4.4 Nucleic Acid Probes and PCR Methods, 255 14.4.5 Glucuronidase Assay for E. coli, 257 14.4.6 Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Test, 258 14.5 Immunoassay Methods, 258 14.5.1 Radioimmunoassay, 258 14.5.2 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, 259 14.5.3 Immunofluorescence Antibody, 259 14.5.4 Immunomagnetic Separation, 260 14.5.5 Latex Agglutination, 260 14.5.6 Enrichment Serology, 261 14.5.7 Immunoelectron Microscopy, 261 14.5.8 Precipitin Reaction, 261 14.5.9 Agglutination Tests, 262 14.5.10 Immunoelectrophoresis, 262 14.6 Other Methods, 263 14.7 Limitation of Rapid Methods, 263 14.8 Future Developments in Rapid Methods, 264 14.8.1 Immunosensors or Biosensors, 264 14.8.2 DNA Microarrays (Chips), 265 Section V: Microbial Food Spoilage, 267 15 Principles of Food Spoilage, 269 15.1 Introduction, 269 15.2 Food Spoilage, 269 15.2.1 Acceptable Foods, 269 15.2.2 Classification of Foods Depending on Stability, 270 15.2.3 Types of Agents Causing Food Spoilage, 271 15.2.4 Types of Food Spoilage, 271 15.2.5 Factors Affecting Food Spoilage, 275 16 Spoilage of Meat and Meat Products, 279 16.1 Introduction, 279 16.2 Meat and Meat Products, 279 16.2.1 Bacterial Attachment with Meat, 279 16.2.2 Contamination, 280 16.2.3 Meat Spoilage, 282 16.2.4 Meat Products, 287 16.2.5 Preservation of Meat and Meat Products, 291 16.3 Poultry, 293 16.3.1 Contamination, 293 16.3.2 Spoilage, 294 16.3.3 Preservation of Poultry, 294 17 Spoilage of Eggs and Egg Products, 296 17.1 Introduction, 296 17.2 Microbial Contamination, 296 17.3 Spoilage, 297 17.3.1 Nonmicrobial Spoilage, 297 17.3.2 Microbial Spoilage, 297 17.4 Preservation of Eggs and Egg Products, 298 17.4.1 Asepsis, 298 17.4.2 Removal of Microorganisms, 299 17.4.3 Use of Heat Treatment, 299 17.4.4 Use of Low Temperatures, 299 17.4.5 Use of Preservatives, 300 18 Spoilage of Fish and Other Seafoods, 301 18.1 Introduction, 301 18.2 Microbial Contamination, 301 18.3 Spoilage, 302 18.3.1 Fish, 302 18.3.2 Shellfish, 304 18.4 Preservation of Fish and Other Seafoods, 304 19 Spoilage of Milk and Milk Products, 307 19.1 Introduction, 307 19.2 Milk Composition and Microbial Contamination, 307 19.3 Spoilage, 309 19.3.1 Raw Milk Spoilage, 309 19.3.2 Fluid Milk Products Spoilage, 315 19.3.3 Fermented Milk Products Spoilage, 322 19.4 Preservation of Milk and Milk Products, 332 19.4.1 Asepsis, 332 19.4.2 Removal of Microorganisms, 333 19.4.3 Use of Heat, 333 19.4.4 Low Temperature, 334 19.4.5 Drying, 334 19.4.6 Use of Preservatives, 335 19.4.7 Mechanical Reduction of Microorganisms, 336 20 Spoilage of Vegetables and Fruits, 337 20.1 Introduction, 337 20.2 Vegetables and Fruits Spoilage, 338 20.2.1 Natural Microflora, 338 20.2.2 Mechanisms of Microbial Spoilage, 338 20.2.3 Vegetables Spoilage, 340 20.2.4 Fruits Spoilage, 343 20.2.5 Preservation of Vegetables and Fruits, 347 20.3 Fruit Juice and Beverage Spoilage, 349 20.3.1 Spoilage, 349 20.3.2 Pathogens, 353 20.4 Fermented Vegetables and Fruits Spoilage, 354 20.4.1 Sauerkraut Spoilage, 355 20.4.2 Pickle Spoilage, 356 20.4.3 Table Olive Spoilage, 358 20.4.4 Alcoholic Beverage Spoilage, 361 21 Spoilage of Cereals and Cereal Products, 364 21.1 Introduction, 364 21.2 Contamination, 364 21.3 Spoilage, 365 21.3.1 Cereal Grains Spoilage, 365 21.3.2 Flour Spoilage, 368 21.3.3 Bread Spoilage, 368 21.3.4 Pastas Spoilage, 371 21.3.5 Pastries Spoilage, 371 21.4 Control of Mold and Mycotoxin Contamination, 371 21.4.1 Control of Mold Growth, 372 21.4.2 Prevention of Mold and Mycotoxin Contamination, 373 21.4.3 Decontamination of Mycotoxins, 374 22 Spoilage of Canned Foods, 376 22.1 Introduction, 376 22.2 Canned Foods, 376 22.2.1 Classification of Canned Foods Based on Acidity, 376 22.2.2 Commercial Sterility of Canned Foods, 377 22.3 Canned Food Spoilage, 377 22.3.1 Microbial Spoilage, 378 22.3.2 Chemical Spoilage, 383 22.3.3 Appearance of Unopened Cans, 383 23 Spoilage of Miscellaneous Foods, 385 23.1 Introduction, 385 23.2 Spoilage, 385 23.2.1 Spoilage of Sugar and Honey, 385 23.2.2 Spoilage of Spices, Seasonings, and Dry Soups, 390 23.2.3 Spoilage of Cocoa, Chocolate, and Confectionery, 391 23.2.4 Spoilage of Oil- and Fat-Based Products, 393 23.2.5 Drinking Water, 399 24 Enzymatic and Nonenzymatic Food Spoilage, 401 24.1 Introduction, 401 24.2 Spoilage, 401 24.2.1 Nonenzymatic Spoilage, 401 24.2.2 Enzymatic Spoilage, 402 24.2.3 Characteristics of Heat-Stable Enzymes of Psychrotrophs, 404 24.2.4 Spoilage of Foods by Heat-Stable Microbial Enzymes, 404 24.2.5 Inhibition of Enzymes, 406 25 Indicators of Food Spoilage, 407 25.1 Introduction, 407 25.2 Indicators of Food Spoilage, 407 25.2.1 Food Spoilage Criteria, 407 25.2.2 Indicators of Microbial Spoilage Criteria, 408 25.2.3 Heat-Stable Enzymes as Spoilage Criteria, 412 26 Psychrotrophs, Thermophiles, and Radiation-Resistant Microorganisms, 413 26.1 Introduction, 413 26.2 Psychrotrophic Microorganisms, 413 26.2.1 Temperature-Induced Changes, 414 26.2.2 Effect of Low Temperatures on Microbial Physiology, 414 26.2.3 Nature of Low Heat Resistance of Psychrotrophs, 415 26.3 Thermophilic Microorganisms, 416 26.3.1 Thermostability, 416 26.3.2 Factors Affecting Thermophilic Microorganisms, 416 26.4 Radiation-Resistant Microorganisms, 417 26.4.1 Characteristics of Radiation-Resistant Micrococcus, 417 26.4.2 Mechanism of Microbial Radiation Resistance, 418 26.4.3 Factors Affecting Radiation Resistance, 418 Bibliography, 419 Index, 431
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